Monday, December 02, 2019

Pilot Kabininde Etkileşim Tipleri 1


BASKINLIK
Dominance
Pilot Kabininde Etkileşim Tipleri 1
Interaction types in the Cockpit
coaching, dominance, and intersubjectivity

KALIFORNİYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAN DİEGO Uçuşta Muhakeme:  Pilot Kabinlerini Muhakeme Sistemleri olarak Anlama
From UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Cognition in Flight: Understanding Cockpits as Cognitive Systems

Barbara E. HOLDER tarafından Muhakeme Bilimi Felsefe Doktoru derecesi gereklerinin kısmi sağlanması için ileri sürülmüş bir Doktora Tezi.
A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Cognitive Science by Barbara E. Holder

Üç seviyedeki özellikleri belirlemek için bir etkileşim analizi geliştirildi.  Bu özellikler koçluk, baskınlık ve intersubjectivity şeklinde ortaya çıktı.
An interaction analysis was developed to identify three system-level properties. These properties are emergent interaction patterns I named coaching, dominance, and intersubjectivity.

Bu davranış desenleri sistem içine şahsi etkileşimlerden ortaya çıktı ve tek bir pilot tarafından oluşturulmadı.  Veri bu davranış desenlerinin sistem performansını ve uçuş güvenliğini etkilediğini ileri sürer.
These patterns emerged from individual interactions in the system and were not produced by a single pilot. The data suggest these patterns influence system performance and flight safety.
...
Etkileşim süreçleri yalnız başına yalıtım içinde değil aynı zamanda sosyal, fiziksel, ve kavramsal boyutlarda oluşur ve sistem etkileşimlerine şekil verir.  Bu bulgular, gösterge tasarımı, eğitim, anlam oluşması, ve ekip koordinasyonu için sonuçlar içerir.
Interactive processes do not occur in isolation, they occur simultaneously across social, physical, and conceptual dimensions and shape system interactions. These findings have implications for display design, training, meaning construction, and crew coordination.
...

Bir baskınlık etkileşimi tek bir pilot herşeyi yaptığında— partnerinden destek veya  onay almadan, enstruman göstergelerini işlediğinde, konuştuğunda, iş yaptığında, karar verdiğinde.  Öbür pilot, daha önce pasif olmasa bile, pasif bir partner olma eğilimindedir.
A dominance interaction occurs when one pilot does everything—processes instrument representations, speaks, acts, decides, without assistance or concurrence from his partner. The other pilot tends to remain a passive partner even if he was not passive before.

Bu davranış deseni genellikle gösterimlerin tek bir pilot merkezli tek yönlü akmasıyla karakterize edilir.  Pilotlar durum hakkında  birbirlerinden bağımsız olarak birer anlayış oluştururlae ve baskın pilotun anlayışı öbür pilotunkini kenara atar.
This pattern is often characterized by a unidirectional flow of representations centering on one pilot. Pilots construct an understanding of the situation independent of each other and the understanding of the dominant pilot may sway the understanding of the other pilot.

Pliotlar arasındaki iletişim baskın pilottan öteki pilota akan tek yönlü olma eğilimindedir ve anlaşma ya da tartışma için çok az ya da hiç şans bırakmaz.  Bu çeşit etkileşimler tehlikeli olarak bilinir ve deniz kuvvetlerinin uçuş ekibi koordinasyon eğitimlerinde girişkenlik başlığında ele alınır.
Communication between pilots tends to be one-sided flowing from the dominating pilot to the other pilot with little or no opportunity for negotiation and discussion. These kinds of interactions are known to be dangerous and are addressed in the navy’s aircrew coordination training under assertiveness.

Girişkenlik bu programda  şu şekilde tanımlanır: bir eylemde bulunmak için kişinin istekliliği ve faal olarak katkıda bulunması.  Ekibin bütün elemanları, pilotlar ve uçucu ekip elemanları bir çeşit girişkenlik eğitimi alır.
 Assertiveness is defined in the programs as: the willingness one has to take action and to actively participate. All members of the crew, pilots and aircrewmen, receive some kind of assertiveness training.
...

Monday, November 25, 2019

LANGANAnın Gösterdikleri


LANGANA İngilizceden Türkçeye Otomatik Tercüme Motoru Çalışmamın Gösterdikleri

2017’de LANGANA çalışmasını durduralı iki yıl oluyor.  Bunun nedeni Google’ın yeni tercüme motorunu çıkarması ve daha önceki haline göre oldukça başarılı olmasıydı.  Beklenti bu başarının devam etmesi ve %85 gibi olan başarı oranının daha da yükselmesiydi.

Malesef, Google çıkarmış olduğu son İngilizceden Türkçeye tercüme motorundan bu yana bir ilerleme kaydedemedi.  İşin kötüsü bilimsel ortamlarda var olan sinirsel ağ tabanlı uygulamaların sadece tek tek cümlelerde başarılı olduğu vb eleştiriler geldi.

İşin aslı yalnızca sinirsel ağları esas alarak yüksek ölçüde başarılı tercüme motoru yapmak bir hayaldir. Çünkü sinirsel ağlar algısal alanlarda, görme vb başarılıdır, oysa tercüme anlamsal alanlara ait, parse işlemine ve önceden öğrenilmiş kurallara göre yapılan bir işlemdir.  İnsan küçüklüğünden itibaren konuşmayı öğrenmesi sırasında belirli kurallar dizisini bilinçaltına yerleştirir.  Bu kurallar dizisi yalnızca tek bir seviyede değil bir çok seviyede çalışır.

LANGANA tek cümleler ve artı iki alt cümleler için şu anda çalışmaktadır.  LANGANA tıpkı bir çocuğun dil öğrenmesi gibi isimlerle başlayıp birleşik cümlelere kadar cümleleri parçalarına ayırmayı sonra tercüme kurallarına göre bunları yeniden düzenleyip, Türkçe kelimeleri ve eklerini ekleyip İngilizceden Türkçeye tercüme yapmaktadır.

Burada en kritik unsur:  LANGANA bütün bu işlemleri 30-40 bin satır JAVA kodu ile yapmaktadır.  Var olan İngilizce ve Türkçe’de karşılaşılabilecek bütün karışık yapıları etkilerseniz bu kod satır sayısı 100-200 bin haydı 1 milyon satır olsun.  Günümüzde var olan donanım ve yazılım araçları için bu önemli bir rakkam değildir.

Şimdi tuvalete yürüyerek gitmek varken Mercedese binmek niye?  Akademik araştırmalarda yeni bir şey yapmak zorunluluğu sinirsel ağları hiç geçerli olmayacakları alanlarda kullanma eğilimini doğuruyor.  Çünkü bu algısal bir şey.

Ali R+ SARAL

Son not: LANGANA eğer tamamlansaydı hiç sinirsel ağ kullanılmayacak mıydı? Belki evet, kelimelerin birden çok anlam taşıdığı durumlarda sözlükten doğru tercüme kelimeyi seçmek için kullanılabilirdi.




Sunday, November 17, 2019

Interaction types in the Cockpit


Interaction types in the Cockpit
coaching, dominance, and intersubjectivity

From UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Cognition in Flight: Understanding Cockpits as Cognitive Systems

A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Cognitive Science by Barbara E. Holder

An interaction analysis was developed to identify three system-level properties. These properties are emergent interaction patterns I named coaching, dominance, and intersubjectivity. These patterns emerged from individual interactions in the system and were not produced by a single pilot. The data suggest these patterns influence system performance and flight safety.
...
Interactive processes do not occur in isolation, they occur simultaneously across social, physical, and conceptual dimensions and shape system interactions. These findings have implications for display design, training, meaning construction, and crew coordination.
...
Coaching occurs when one pilot transforms representations into statements that are supportive of a specific task of the other pilot, such as controlling the aircraft. During a coaching interaction there tends to be heavy flow of representations from the instrument panel to the copilot and then to the pilot. Coaching statements may be given as directives 38 38 (“get that nose over”) or as status (“that’s a good rate”) or as reassurance (“you've got it”). The pilot being coached may verbally acknowledge the statements or acknowledge them through his actions. The coaching pilot monitors the other pilot’s actions and continues to coach as required. Coaching interactions tend to vary in duration because pilots transition in and out of coaching to perform other tasks such as verifying a mechanical failure. The notion of coaching is represented in the pilot community in the phrase back each other up.
...
A dominance interaction occurs when one pilot does everything—processes instrument representations, speaks, acts, decides, without assistance or concurrence from his partner. The other pilot tends to remain a passive partner even if he was not passive before. This pattern is often characterized by a unidirectional flow of representations centering on one pilot. Pilots construct an understanding of the situation independent of each other and the understanding of the dominant pilot may sway the understanding of the other pilot. Communication between pilots tends to be one-sided flowing from the dominating pilot to the other pilot with little or no opportunity for negotiation and discussion. These kinds of interactions are known to be dangerous and are addressed in the navy’s aircrew coordination training under assertiveness. Assertiveness is defined in the programs as: the willingness one has to take action and to actively participate. All members of the crew, pilots and aircrewmen, receive some kind of assertiveness training.
...
The last interaction pattern is intersubjectivity as the emergence of a shared understanding between pilots. Hutchins and Klausen (1996), documented the emergence of intersubjectivity between crewmembers flying a commercial airplane. These interactions occur when both pilots make relevant contributions in terms of speech and 40 40 action to a joint activity. We see abbreviated sentences, overlapping speech, and actions in response to an understanding not a command. The interaction may vary in length and intensity and may incorporate coaching. The exchange transitions into parallel coordination when the pilots begin another separate, but contextually appropriate, activity following an interaction. Parallel coordination occurs when both pilots perform separate, complimentary activities in parallel such as one pilot performing checks while the other calls air traffic control. Intersubjective interactions usually occur during intense activity, like during a diagnosis, detection of a malfunction, or when the crew is regaining aircraft control. These are periods where crew coordination is essential. The closest term to intersubjectivity in the training program is synergy, but it is not clearly defined nor is it used to describe behavior outside of the books. It is not surprising that this is a more difficult phenomenon to conceptualize in training terms.






Sunday, November 03, 2019

Pilot Kabinlerini Muhakemesel Sistem Olarak Anlamak


Pilot Kabinlerini Muhakemesel Sistem Olarak Anlamak

From UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Cognition in Flight: Understanding Cockpits as Cognitive Systems

Barbara E. Holder’ın Doktora tezinden
A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Cognitive Science by Barbara E. Holder

 
Hutchins’in (1995) dağınık muhakeme teorik çerçeve işinden prensipleri kullanarak pilot kabininin muhakemesel bir sistem olarak nasıl çalıştığı görevine başladım.
Utilizing principles of Hutchins (1995) distributed cognition theoretical framework I set about the task of describing how the cockpit functioned as a cognitive system in both cases.

Pilot kabinini muhakemesel bir sistem olarak düşünmek uçak işletimine katkıda bulunan yalnız pilotları değil, fakat aynı zamanda göstergeleri, prosedürleri ve etkileşimleri içeren geniş bir analiz birimini içerir.  Böylece, pilot kabini sosyal, fiziki, ve kavramsal çevreleri üzerine dağılmış bir biligi işleme sistemi olarak görülebilir.
Thinking of a cockpit as a cognitive system requires an expanded unit of analysis that includes not just the pilots, but also the displays, procedures and interactions that contribute to aircraft operation. Thus, the cockpit may be seen as an information processing system that is distributed across its social, physical, and conceptual environments. 

Pilotlar muhakemesel bir sistemin katılanları ve uçak davranışı yalnızca pilot bilgisinin bir sonucu değil bu, aynı zamanda pilotların eylemleri, kararları, ve değerlendirmeleri düzenlemek için nasıl kabin kaynaklarını koordine ettiklerine dayanır.
Pilots are participants in a cognitive system and aircraft behavior is not merely a function of pilot knowledge it also depends on how pilots coordinate cockpit resources to organize actions, decisions, and judgements.

Son yıllarda pilot kabini iş yükü yönetiminde araştırmalar bir görevle aşırı meşgul olmanın başka önemli işlerin bırakılması sonucunu doğrabildiğini ileri sürmektedir.  Bazı durumlarda bırakılan görev navigasyon ve uçak kontrolunu içerebilir.
Recent research in cockpit workload management suggests that preoccupation with one task may result in the shedding of other important tasks. Under some circumstances the tasks shed may include the navigation and control of the aircraft. 

Raby ve Wickens (1994) zihinsel yük arttıkça, öznelerin 16 16 icra stratejilerini ayarladıklarını buldu, fakat bu stratejiler detaylı değildi.  Daha yüksek öncelikli işlere zaman içinde daha çok dikkat veriliyordu ve alçak öncelikli işler öncelikte daha da azaltılıyor ya da terk ediliyordu.
Raby and Wickens (1994) found that as workload increased, subjects adjusted their task 16 16 performance strategies, but those strategies were not elaborate. Tasks of higher priority were given more attention over time and lower priority tasks were further degraded in priority or shed

İşini iyi yapan pilotların görevlerini daha erken yaptıklarını ve görevleri arasında değişiklik yapmakta daha esnek oldukları sonucunu  çıkardılar.  Dikkatin doymaya uğraması, veya tünel görme, muhakemesel gereklilik nedeni ile oluşabilir. (Williams, 1995).
They concluded pilots who performed well appeared to perform their tasks earlier and were more flexible in switching between tasks. Attention saturation, or tunnel vision, may be induced by cognitive demand (Williams, 1995).

Durum farkındalığına katkıda bulunan bilgi toplama faaliyetleri iş yükünü arttırır ve durum farkındalığının sürüdürülmesi yürütülmekte olan görevlerin icrası ile çatışan kaynaklar gerektirebilir(Adams, Tenney, & Pew, 1995). 
Information gathering activities that contribute to situation awareness add to workload and the maintenance of situation awareness requires resources that may compete with ongoing task performance (Adams, Tenney, & Pew, 1995). 

Uçağın içinde bulunduğu halin değiştiği durumlarda her bir değişiklik önemli ya da anlamlı değildir.  Dikkatini bir unsurdan öbürüne değiştiren pilotlar kendi içinde tutarlı bir resim oluşturamazlar, fakat eğer pilot dikkatini güncellenmesi geken kritik ipuçlarına kaydırmazsa bir durum değerlendirilmesi kaçırılabilir (Woods, Johannesen, Cook, & Sarter, 1994).
In situations where the state of the aircraft is changing not every change is important nor meaningful. Pilots who shift attention from one item to another may not be able to formulate a coherent picture, but unless pilots shift attention critical cues needed to update a situation assessment may be missed (Woods, Johannesen, Cook, & Sarter, 1994).


Sunday, October 27, 2019

Understanding Cockpits as Cognitive Systems


From UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Cognition in Flight: Understanding Cockpits as Cognitive Systems

A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Cognitive Science by Barbara E. Holder




Utilizing principles of Hutchins (1995) distributed cognition theoretical framework I set about the task of describing how the cockpit functioned as a cognitive system in both cases.

Thinking of a cockpit as a cognitive system requires an expanded unit of analysis that includes not just the pilots, but also the displays, procedures and interactions that contribute to aircraft operation. Thus, the cockpit may be seen as an information processing system that is distributed across its social, physical, and conceptual environments. 

Pilots are participants in a cognitive system and aircraft behavior is not merely a function of pilot knowledge it also depends on how pilots coordinate cockpit resources to organize actions, decisions, and judgements.

Recent research in cockpit workload management suggests that preoccupation with one task may result in the shedding of other important tasks. Under some circumstances the tasks shed may include the navigation and control of the aircraft. 

Raby and Wickens (1994) found that as workload increased, subjects adjusted their task 16 16 performance strategies, but those strategies were not elaborate. Tasks of higher priority were given more attention over time and lower priority tasks were further degraded in priority or shed. 

They concluded pilots who performed well appeared to perform their tasks earlier and were more flexible in switching between tasks. Attention saturation, or tunnel vision, may be induced by cognitive demand (Williams, 1995).

Information gathering activities that contribute to situation awareness add to workload and the maintenance of situation awareness requires resources that may compete with ongoing task performance(Adams, Tenney, & Pew, 1995). 

In situations where the state of the aircraft is changing not every change is important nor meaningful. Pilots who shift attention from one item to another may not be able to formulate a coherent picture, but unless pilots shift attention critical cues needed to update a situation assessment may be missed (Woods, Johannesen, Cook, & Sarter, 1994).


Saturday, October 19, 2019

Muamele Analizi ve Otomatik Yanıt


Muamele Analizi ve Otomatik Yanıt
Transactional Analysis and Automatic Processing

Muamele Analizi [1] insan kişiliğinin Ebeveyn, Olgun, Çocuk olarak adlandırılan üç unsurdan oluştuğunu ileri sürer.  Herhangi belirli bir durumda birey, kişinin o anda hissettiği şekle karşı düşen bir davranış deseni gösterir.  Duygular değişirken, kişinin gösterdiği davranış desenleri de değişir.
Transactional Analysis [1] states that human personality is made up of three elements which he referred to as Parent, Adult and Child.  . In any given situation an individual will exhibit a certain pattern of  behaviour which corresponds to the way that person is actually feeling at the time. As feelings change, so also do the patterns of behaviour which the person displays.

Ebeveyn ego durumu ebeveyn kişilerinden elde edilen bir grup düşünce, duygu ve davranış içerir.  Ebeveyn ego durumu insanların bir çok durumda otomatik yanıt vermesini sağlar.  Bu, kişinin çabuk ve yorulmadan tepki göstermesini sağlar.
The Parent ego state represents a set of thoughts, feelings and behaviour which are derived from parental figures.  Parent ego state enables people to respond automatically in many situations.  This
enables the person to react quickly and without unncessary energy.  Parent  ego state has all the attributes of any automatic process.

Kontrollu işlemlerin tersine otomatik işlemler [2] farkında olmadan seçimler içerir.  Bu işlemler çabasız, hızlıdır, ve performansı etkilemeden diğer işlemlerle aynı anda yapılabilirler.  Otomatik işlemler bir kere başlatıldıktan sonra değiştirilmeleri zordur.  Dolayısıyla, eğer bir insan sesini yükseltirse derdini anlatıp bitirmeden önce hafifletmesi pek olası değildir.
Contrary to the controlled processes automatic processes [2]  involve selection without awareness. These processes are effortless, fast, and can be carried out concurrently with other processes without compromising performance. Once automatic processes are initiated, they are difficult to modify.  So, if a person raises his/her voice it is very unlikely that it will stop before its content ends.

Ayrıca, otomatik süreçler declarative uzun dönem bellekte değişkilik yapmazlar.  Dolayısıyla, bir insan işten eve ‘oto-pilot’ ile döner ve yol hakkında hiç bir şey hatırlamaz.  Bu, yüksek sesle kavga eden kişilerin daha sonra pek bir şey hatırlamamalarını açıklayabilir.
Also, automatic processes typically do not produce changes in declarative long-term memory. Consequently, a person may drive home from work on ‘auto-pilot’ and have no conscious memory of the trip.  This may be the reason why people do not remember much after they quarrel loudly.

Otomatik işlemler otomatik olarak icra edilir fakat bilinçli olarak ta çalıştırılabilir.  Bilinçaltının bir parçasıdırlar.  Bilinçaltı ya da ön-bilinç bilinçli zihne getirilebilme yeteneğine sahip herşeyden oluşur. [1].  Bilinçaltı eğer onları düşünebilirsek farkına varabileceğimiz bütün tepkileri ve otomatik hareketleri tanımlar.
The automatic processes are performed automaticly but they can also be executed consciously.  They are part of the subconscious.  The preconscious (subconscious)- consists of anything that could potentially be brought into the conscious mind[1].  Subconscious defines all reactions and automatic actions we can become aware of if we think about them.

Örneğin, otomobil sürme yeteneğimiz: bir kez ustalaştıktan sonra hangi vitesi kullanacağımızı, hangi pedala basacağımızı veya hangi aynaya bakacağımızı düşünmeyi bırakırız, yine de onun hakkında düşünecek olursak ne yaptığımızın farkına varabiliriz [3].
For example, our ability to drive a car: once we get skilled we stop thinking which gears to use, which pedals to press, or which mirror to look at, yet can always become aware of what was done once we think about it [3].

Biliçaltı bilinçsizlik ve bilinç arasında bir geçiştir.  Bilincin  bilinçsizlik ile iletişim kurduğu bir arayüzdür.
Aynı zamanda bilinçsizlik içindeki bilgi/duygular deryasını saklamaya yardım eder [4].
The subconscious is the transition between unconscious and conscious.  It is an interface with which conscious communicates with the unconscious.  It also helps to hide the plethora of information/feelings etc. that reside in the unconscious [4].

Bir ATCO’nun bir pilota bağırdığı az görülen bir durum değildir.  Bu, çocuklukta benzer bir durumda tetiklenmiş ve ebeveyn ego tarafından taşınmış otomatik, niyet edilmemiş bir davranış olabilir.  Çocuklukta kontrol edici ebeveynlerden ani bir korku bağırmayı tetikleyebilir.  Bağıran kişinin iletişim sırasında davranışını hemen değiştirmesi pek olası değildir.  4444’te olduğu gibi standart pilot – ATCO jargonunu kullanmak bu durumdaki riskleri azaltabilir.
It is not rare that we hear an ATCO shouting at a pilot.  It is possibly an automatic, unintentional behaviour which is trigged similar to a situation in her/his childhood and carried by the parent ego.
The sudden feeling of fear from controlling parents at childhood may trigger shouting.  It is not likely that the shouting person can modify his/her behaviour during the intercourse.  The use of standard pilot –  ATCO jargonlike in 4444 may reduce the risks related to this situation.

REFERENCES:
[1] Aldi Yudha; Counselling Skills and theory, 4th Edition by Margaret Hough (2014)
[2] ] LANA M. TRICKy*, JAMES T. ENNSz, JESSICA MILLSz and JOHN VAVRIKx, ‘Paying attention behind the wheel: a framework for studying the roleof attention in driving’,Theor. Issues in Ergon. Sci. September–October 2004, vol. 5, no. 5, 385–424, (yDepartment of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, zUniversity of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,xInsurance Corporation of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)
[3] The Structure of the Mind, According to Freud, Kendra Cherry Updated March 11, 2019
[4] Gregory Mitchell; The Cognitive Unconscious
[5] Dr. Robert Williams; Processing Information with Nonconscious Mind, JOURNAL PSYCHE, 
University of Texas at Austin, American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA).



Monday, October 14, 2019

Transactional Analysis and Automatic Processing


Transactional Analysis and Automatic Processing

Transactional Analysis [1] states that human personality is made up of three elements which he referred to as Parent, Adult and Child.  . In any given situation an individual will exhibit a certain pattern of behavior which corresponds to the way that person is actually feeling at the time. As feelings change, so also do the patterns of behavior which the person displays.

The Parent ego state represents a set of thoughts, feelings and behavior which are derived from parental figures.  Parent ego state enables people to respond automatically in many situations.  This
enables the person to react quickly and without unnecessary energy.  Parent  ego state has all the attributes of any automatic process.

Contrary to the controlled processes automatic processes [2]  involve selection without awareness. These processes are effortless, fast, and can be carried out concurrently with other processes without compromising performance. Once automatic processes are initiated, they are difficult to modify.  So, if a person raises his/her voice it is very unlikely that it will stop before its content ends.

Also, automatic processes typically do not produce changes in declarative long-term memory. Consequently, a person may drive home from work on ‘auto-pilot’ and have no conscious memory of the trip.  This may be the reason why people do not remember much after they quarrel loudly.

The automatic processes are performed automatically but they can also be executed consciously.  They are part of the subconscious.  The preconscious (subconscious)- consists of anything that could potentially be brought into the conscious mind[1].  Subconscious defines all reactions and automatic actions we can become aware of if we think about them.

For example, our ability to drive a car: once we get skilled we stop thinking which gears to use, which pedals to press, or which mirror to look at, yet can always become aware of what was done once we think about it [3].

The subconscious is the transition between unconscious and conscious.  It is an interface with which conscious communicates with the unconscious.  It also helps to hide the plethora of information/feelings etc. that reside in the unconscious [4].

It is not rare that we hear an ATCO shouting at a pilot.  It is possibly an automatic, unintentional behavior which is triggered similar to a situation in her/his childhood and carried by the parent ego.
The sudden feeling of fear from controlling parents at childhood may trigger shouting.  It is not likely that the shouting person can modify his/her behavior during the intercourse.  The use of standard pilot - ATCO jargon-like in 4444 may reduce the risks related to this situation.

REFERENCES:
[1] Aldi Yudha; Counselling Skills and theory, 4th Edition by Margaret Hough (2014)

[2]  LANA M. TRICKy*, JAMES T. ENNSz, JESSICA MILLSz and JOHN VAVRIKx, ‘Paying attention behind the wheel: a framework for studying the roleof attention in driving’,Theor. Issues in Ergon. Sci. September–October 2004, vol. 5, no. 5, 385–424, (yDepartment of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, zUniversity of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,xInsurance Corporation of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)

[3] The Structure of the Mind, According to Freud, Kendra Cherry Updated March 11, 2019

[4] Gregory Mitchell; The Cognitive Unconscious
[5] Dr. Robert Williams; Processing Information with Nonconscious Mind, JOURNAL PSYCHE, 
University of Texas at Austin, American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA).



Sunday, September 29, 2019

Transaksiyonel Analize Giriş - otomatik işleme ve acil durum açısından


Transaksiyonel Analize Giriş
Introduction to Transactional Analysis
Otomatik işleme ve acil durum açısından
with a view of automatic processing and  emergency cases

Bu yazı, Ali Yudha’nın kitabından bir kısımdır[1].  Önce giriş ve ilgili ‘Ebeveyn’ ego durumu kısımlarını alacağım.  Daha sonra bunun otomatik süreçler ve hatta acil durumlarla ilişkisi üzerine yorum yapacağım.  Ne yazık ki bir ATCO’nun bir pilota bağırdığını duymamız nadir değildir.  Fakat aslında bağıran ATCO değil onun baba/annesidir.  Neden/Nasıl?  Lütfen aşağıdaki ve gelecek blog makalemi okuyunuz.
This is a section of Aldi Yudha’s book [1].  I will first take the introduction and the relevant part ‘Parent’ ego state.  Later I will comment on its relation to automatic processing and even emergency cases.  It is not rare that we hear an ATCO shouting to a pilot unfortunately.  But actually it is not the ATCO but it is her father/mother shouting.  Why/How?  Please read the below and my next blog article.

Ego durumları
Ego states
Transaksiyonel analizin temel bir düşüncesi ego durumlarıdır.  Berne Ebeveyn insan kişiliğinin, Yetişkin, Çocuk olarak adlandırdığı üç unsurdan oluştuğunu ileri sürdü.  Bu tanıdık isimler zihnin ‘benlik’durumlarını tarif eder. Berne, bu durumların kendilerine ait davranış desenlerine yolaçtığına inandı.
An idea fundamental to transactional analysis is that of ego states. Berne suggested that human personality is made up of three elements which he referred to as Parent, Adult and Child. These familiar words were used by him to describe states of ‘self’ or states of mind which he believed
gave rise to their own individual patterns of behaviour.

Ego durumları, tabii ki, hepimizde ortak olarak vardır ve düşüncelerimizi, duygularımızı ve davranışlarımızı yönetir.  Herhangi bir verilmiş durumda kişinin o anda gerçekten hissettiği şekle karşı düşen belirli bir davranış desenini gösterir birey.  Duygular değiştikçe, kişinin gösterdiği davranış deseni de değişir.
Ego states are, of course, common to all of us and govern our thoughts, feelings and behaviour. In any given situation an individual will exhibit a certain pattern of behaviour which corresponds to the way that person is actually feeling at the time. As feelings change, so also do the patterns of behaviour which the person displays.




Ebeveyn ego durumu
Parent ego state
Ebeveyn ego durumu ebeveyn kişilerden alınan bir kümeyi, düşünce, duygu ve davranışı temsil eder.  Berne’ye göre(1964) Ebeveyn durumu hem dolaylı hem de doğrudan şekillerde gösterilir.  Bir kişi, örneğin, ebeveynlerinden birinin belirli bir durumda göstereceği tepki gibi tepki gösterir.  Bu olduğu zaman, ego durumu doğrudan gösterilir.  Ebeveyn etkisi dolaylı olduğunda, kişi ebeveynlerinin onun tepki göstermesini istediği şekilde tepki gösterebilir.
The Parent ego state represents a set of thoughts, feelings and behaviour which are derived from parental figures. According to Berne (1964) the Parent ego state is exhibited in both indirect and direct form. A person may, for example, respond as one of his parents actually responded in a given situation. When this occurs, the ego state is directly shown. When the parental influence is an indirect one, then the person is likely to respond as his parents would have wished him to respond.

Geçmişten gelen bilgi
Information from the past
Ebeveyn ego durumunda kayıt edilmiş bilgiler yaşamın bütün yönleri ile başa çıkmamızı sağlar.  Aynı zamanda insanların kendilerinin ebeveyn olarak işlev görmesi ve kendi çocuklarının yetiştirmeleri için gerekli bütün bilgileri sağlar.  Ebeveyn ego durumunun bir başka önemli yönü de  çok sayıda durumda insanların otomatik olarak yanıt vermelerini mümkün kılar, öyle ki Berne’nin deyimiyle ‘rutin işler’ fazla enerji harcamadan halledilebilir(Berne, 1964).  Yine de, Ebeveyn ego durumu uygun değilse veya zarar verici ise problemler ortaya çıkabilir.  Bunun bir örneği, banka kasa görevlisinin hizmet etmesi gereken müşteriye ilişkin ‘daha üst’ duruş almasıdır.
Information which is recorded in the Parent ego state enables us to cope with all aspects of living. It also provides all the data necessary to enable people to function as parents themselves and raise their own children. Another significant aspect of the Parent ego state is that it enables people to respond automatically in many situations, so that many ‘routine matters’ as Berne describes them can be dealt with without unnecessary expenditure of energy (Berne, 1964). Problems arise, though, when the Parent ego state is inappropriate or counter-productive in a given situation. One example of this is the bank cashier who adopts a certain ‘superior’ stance in relation to the account holders she is meant to serve.

Berne(1972) kişiliğin yapısal diyagramını detaylandırdı, böylece Ebeveyn ego durumu şimdi genellikle ‘Koruyucu Ebeveyn’ ve ‘Sınırlayıcı’ ya da ‘Kumanda edici’ ebeveyn şeklinde ikiye bölünür – bkz. Şekil 7.2. Bu diyagram aynı zamanda Çocuğun ego durumunu ‘Özgür’ veya ‘İsyankar’ ve ‘Adapte olmuş’ şeklinde alt bölümlerle gösterir.
Berne (1972) elaborated on his structural diagram of personality, so that the Parent ego state is now commonly divided into ‘Nurturing Parent’ and ‘Critical’ or ‘Controlling’ Parent – see Figure 7.2. This diagram also illustrates the subdivision of the Child ego state into ‘Free’ or ‘Rebellious’ Child, and ‘Adapted’ Child.




Koruyucu Ebeveyn ve Kısıtlayıcı Ebeveyn
Nurturing Parent and Controlling Parent
‘Koruyucu Ebeveyn’ ve ‘Kısıtlayıcı Ebeveyn’ erken çocuklukta emilen ve ifade edildiğinde açıkça fark edilebilen iki farklı etki kümesidir.
The terms ‘Nurturing Parent’ and ‘Controlling Parent’ refer to two different sets of influence which are absorbed in early childhood and are clearly distinguishable from each other when they are manifest.

Yine de bu, her iki kelime ‘Kontrol etme’ ve ‘Önyargılı’,  belirli durumlarda, genellikle otomatik ve sorgulanmadan gösterilen ve  keyfi, yasaklayıcı tavırları adlandırmak için kullanılır.
However, both these words, ‘Controlling’ and ‘Prejudicial’, are meant to denote arbitrary and pro hibitive attitudes which are borrowed from parental figures and are usually exhibited automatically and without question in certain situations.

‘Koruyucu Ebeveyn’ ego durumu tamamen farklı bir şekilde görülür, ve genellikle sempati veya ihtiyacı olan yada zor durumda olan başkalarına destek şeklindedir.  Çocukların da üç ego durumunda
yanıt verdiklerini unutmamak  önemlidir ve ‘Koruyucu Ebeveyn’ durumundayken birine veya oyuncak ve bebeklere, daha küçük, zayıf ve savunmasız bir şeye ilgi şeklinde gösterilebilir.
The ‘Nurturing Parent’ ego state is shown in a completely different way, and is usually manifest as sympathy or support for others in need or distress. It is important to remember that children are also capable of responding in all three ego states, and when they are in ‘Nurturing Parent’ it tends to be demonstrated as concern for someone or something smaller, weaker and more vulnerable, including toys and dolls.

REFERENCES:
[1] Aldi Yudha; Counselling Skills and theory, 4th Edition by Margaret Hough (2014)

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Introduction to Transactional Analysis


Introduction to Transactional Analysis
with a view of automatic processing and  emergency cases

This is a section of Aldi Yudha’s book [1].  I will first take the introduction and the relevant part ‘Parent’ ego state.  Later I will comment on its relation to automatic processing and even emergency cases.  It is not rare that we hear an ATCO shouting to a pilot unfortunately.  But actually it is not the ATCO but it is her father/mother shouting.  Why/How?  Please read the below and my next blog article.

Ego states
An idea fundamental to transactional analysis is that of ego states. Berne suggested that human personality is made up of three elements which he referred to as Parent, Adult and Child. These familiar words were used by him to describe states of ‘self’ or states of mind which he believed
gave rise to their own individual patterns of behaviour.

 Ego states are, of course, common to all of us and govern our thoughts, feelings and behaviour. In any given situation an individual will exhibit a certain pattern of behaviour which corresponds
to the way that person is actually feeling at the time. As feelings change, so also do the patterns of behaviour which the person displays.


Parent ego state
The Parent ego state represents a set of thoughts, feelings and behaviour which are derived from parental figures. According to Berne (1964) the Parent ego state is exhibited in both indirect and direct form. A person may, for example, respond as one of his parents actually responded in a given situation. When this occurs, the ego state is directly shown. When the parental influence is an indirect one, then the person is likely to respond as his parents would have wished him to respond.

Information from the past
Information which is recorded in the Parent ego state enables us to cope with all aspects of living. It also provides all the data necessary to enable people to function as parents themselves and raise their own children. Another significant aspect of the Parent ego state is that it enables people to respond automatically in many situations, so that many ‘routine matters’ as Berne describes them can be dealt with without unnecessary expenditure of energy (Berne, 1964). Problems arise, though, when the Parent ego state is inappropriate or counter-productive in a given situation. One example of this is the bank cashier who adopts a certain ‘superior’ stance in relation to the account holders she is meant to serve.

Berne (1972) elaborated on his structural diagram of personality, so that the Parent ego state is now commonly divided into ‘Nurturing Parent’ and ‘Critical’ or ‘Controlling’ Parent – see Figure 7.2. This diagram also illustrates the subdivision of the Child ego state into ‘Free’ or ‘Rebellious’ Child, and ‘Adapted’ Child.



Nurturing Parent and Controlling Parent The terms ‘Nurturing Parent’ and ‘Controlling Parent’ refer to two different sets of influence which are absorbed in early childhood and are clearly distinguishable from each other when they are manifest.

However, both these words, ‘Controlling’ and ‘Prejudicial’, are meant to denote arbitrary and pro hibitive attitudes which are borrowed from parental figures and are usually exhibited automatically and without question in certain situations.

The ‘Nurturing Parent’ ego state is shown in a completely different way, and is usually manifest as sympathy or support for others in need or distress. It is important to remember that children are also capable of responding in all three ego states, and when they are in ‘Nurturing Parent’ it tends to be demonstrated as concern for someone or something smaller, weaker and more vulnerable, including toys and dolls.

REFERENCES:
[1] Aldi Yudha; Counselling Skills and theory, 4th Edition by Margaret Hough (2014)