Saturday, April 04, 2020

Sosyal Etkileşim Dili olarak Performans


Sosyal Etkileşim Dili olarak Performans
Performance as language of social interaction
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild



Denizde seyir ve Demirleme işlemlerinde iş bölümü, konum tespiti çevriminin unsurlarını sosyal alanda dağıtır.  İşlemler sosyal organizasyon içinde nerede ise, hesapsal bağımlılıklar aynı zamanda sosyal bağımlılıklardır.
The division of labor mandated in Sea and Anchor Detail distributes the elements of the fix cycle across social space. Wherever computations are distributed across social organization, computational dependencies are also social dependencies .

Performans gerçek insan ilişkilerinde saklıdır.  Her eylem yalnızca hesaplamanın bir parçası, tamamlanan görevin bir parçacığı değil; aynı zamanda bir sosyal mesajdır.  İyi sosyal ilişkiler kurmak yetkin performansın önemli bir devindiricisidir(harekete geçiricisidir).
Performance is embedded in real human relationships . Every action is not only a piece of the computation , a bit of the task completed ; it is also a social message. Building and maintaining good social relationships becomes an important motive for competent performance .

Sosyal yapı yalnızca, üstünde iletişimin inşa edildiği çerçeve-yapı değil, aynı zamanda etkileşimlerden önce onların gerektiği gibi gerçekleşmesi için hazır olan mekanizmadır.  Neden pelorus operatörü işbirliği yapmalı?  Çünkü yeterli performans sosyal etkileşimin geçer akçesidir.
The social structure is not only the framework on which the communication is based, it is also the mechanism that is in place prior to the interactions to ensure that they take place as required .  Why should the pelorus operator cooperate? Because adequate performance is the currency of social interaction . 

Bir öğrenci insanların işte ne yaptıkları üzerine bir fikir belirtti, bir otomobil fabrikasında insanların çoğunlukla araba yaptıklarını belirterek.  Roy şunun gibi bir şey söyledi: “Ne yaptıklarını nasıl biliyorsun?  Belki de yaptıkları sosyal ilişkiler üretmek ve arabalar ise yan bir sonuç.”
A student was making a point about what people do at work, saying that in an auto factory people mostly make cars. Roy said something like: "How do you know what they are doing? Maybe what they are making is social relationships and the cars are a side effect."



Saturday, March 28, 2020

Performance as language of social interaction



Performance as language of social interaction
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild



The division of labor mandated in Sea and Anchor Detail distributes the elements of the fix cycle across social space. Wherever computations are distributed across social organization, computational dependencies are also social dependencies . Performance is embedded in real human relationships . Every action is not only a piece of the computation , a bit of the task completed ; it is also a social message. Building and maintaining good social relationships becomes an important motive for competent performance .

The social structure is not only the framework on which the communication is based, it is also the mechanism that is in place prior to the interactions to ensure that they take place as required .
Why should the pelorus operator cooperate? Because adequate performance is the currency of social interaction . 

A student was making a point about what people do at work, saying that in an auto factory people mostly make cars. Roy said something like: "How do you know what they are doing? Maybe what they are making is social relationships and the cars are a side effect."

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Grup Özelliklerine Karşı Kişisel Özellikler




Grup Özelliklerine Karşı Kişisel Özellikler
Group Properties vs Individual Properties
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Antropolojide emeğin bölüştürülmesinden daha önemli bir kavram çok az bulunur.
In anthropology there is scarcely a more important concept than the division of labor.

Tu154 - credit belongs to Lufthansa pilot Mrs. Rainer Horsch

Bir insan grubunun enerji bütçesi ve bir grubun fiziksel çevresini kullanma verimliliği açısından, sosyal organizasyon etkenleri bireylerin özelliklerinden farklı grup özellikleri ortaya çıkartır.
In terms of the energy budget of a human group and the efficiency with which a group exploits its physical environment , social organizational factors often produce group properties that differ considerably from the properties of individuals .

Örneğin, Karl Wittfogel (1957, Roberts 1964) hidrolik tarım ve doğu despotluğu hakkında yazarken,: yalnız kitlesel emek kullanarak büyük miktarda suyun kanallanabileceğini; ve bu kitlesel emeğin koordine edilmek, disiplinli olmak ve yönetilmek zorunda olduğunu söylemiştir.
For example , Karl Wittfogel (1957, cited in Roberts 1964),  writing about the advent of hydraulic farming and Oriental despotism , says:  A large quantity of water can be channeled and kept within bounds only by the use of mass labor ; and this mass labor must be coordinated , disciplined , and led. 

Böylece kurak aşağı arazileri ve ovaları fethetmek isteyen birkaç çiftçi – makina öncesi teknoloji temelinde – tek başarı şansını sunan organizasyonel cihazları harekete geçirmek zorunda kaldılar;
Onlar ortakları ile işbirliği halinde çalışmak ve kendilerini yönetici bir otorite altına almak zorundaydılar.
 Thus a number of farmers eager to conquer arid lowlands and plains are forced to invoke the organizational devices which - on the basis of premachine technology - offer the one chance of success; they must work in cooperation with their fellows and subordinate themselves to a directing authority .

Bu çeşit etki modern yaşamda sayısızdır fakat çoğunlukla görülmezdir.  Emek fiziksel ya da muhakemesel tabiatta olsa da, katılanların faaliyetlerini koordine etmek için, emeğin bütün bölünüşleri dağıtılmış muhakeme gerektirirler.
This kind of effect is ubiquitous in modem life , but it is largely invisible .  All divisions of labor , whether the labor is physical or cognitive in nature , require distriibuted cognition in order to coordinate the activities of the participants .

Dağıtılan emek dağıtılmış muhakemesel emek olduğu zaman, sistem iki çeşit muhakemesel emeğin dağıtımını içerir: Göreve özgü muhakeme ve görevin unusurlarının koordinasyonunu yöneten muhakeme.
When the labor that is disbibuted is cognitive labor , the system involves the disbibution of two kinds of cognitive labor : the cognition that is the task and the cognition that governs the coordination
of the elements of the task.

Böyle bir durumda, muhakemesel görevi icra eden grup, kişinin muhakemesel özelliklerinden farklı muhakemesel özelliklere sahiptir.
In such a case, the group performing the cognitive task may have cognitive properties that differ from the cognitive properties of any individual.

Wednesday, March 04, 2020

Group Properties vs Individual Properties




Group Properties vs Individual Properties
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

In anthropology there is scarcely a more important concept than the division of labor .

In terms of the energy budget of a human group and the efficiency with which a group exploits its physical environment , social organizational factors often produce group properties that differ considerably from the properties of individuals .

For example , Karl Wittfogel (1957, cited in Roberts 1964),  writing about the advent of hydraulic farming and Oriental despotism , says:  A large quantity of water can be channeled and kept within bounds only by the use of mass labor ; and this mass labor must be coordinated , disciplined , and led. 

 Thus a number of farmers eager to conquer arid lowlands and plains are forced to invoke the organizational devices which - on the basis of premachine technology - offer the one chance of success; they must work in cooperation with their fellows and subordinate themselves to a directing authority .

This kind of effect is ubiquitous in modem life , but it is largely invisible .  All divisions of labor , whether the labor is physical or cognitive in nature , require disbibuted cognition in order to coordinate the activities of the participants .

When the labor that is disbibuted is cognitive labor , the system involves the disbibution of two kinds of cognitive labor : the cognition that is the task and the cognition that governs the coordination
of the elements of the task.

In such a case, the group performing the cognitive task may have cognitive properties that differ from the cognitive properties of any individual .

Friday, February 28, 2020

Nesnelerin Neden Çalıştığını Bilmek


Nesnelerin Neden Çalıştığını Bilmek
Knowing Why Things Work
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Merkator projeksiyonu haritası özelleşmiş bir analog bilgisayardır, ve haritayı kullanılabilir kılan özellikleri had safhada matematiksel tabiatlıdır.  Fakat hesaplamanın o kısımları haritayı yapanlar tarafından icra edilmiştir ve harita kullanıcılarının sorunu değildir.
The Mercator -projection chart is a specialized analog computer , and the properties of the chart that make its use possible are profoundly mathematical in nature . But those parts of the computation
were performed by cartographers and need not be a direct concern of the chart 's users.

Haritacı haritasını kullanan her seyrüseferci için hesaplamanın bir kısmını yapmıştır.  Hesaplama zaman  ve sosyal(kişiler) çevre içinde dağıtılmıştır.  Seyrüsefercinin harita nasıl yapıldığını bilmesi gerekmez ve çizgilere özel bir anlam yükleyen Merkator projeksiyonunun özelliklerini bilmeye ihtiyaç hissetmez.
The cartographer has already done part of the computation for every navigator who uses his chart . The computation has been distributed over time as well as across social space.  The navigator doesn't have to know how the chart was made and doesn't need to know about the properties of the Mercator projection that give special computational meaning to straight lines. 

Eğer kullanıcı onun nasıl çalıştığını bilmezse aslında cihaz daha güçlü olur çünkü bu yüzden daha geniş bir kullanıcı çevresinin erişimine açılır.  Seyrüsefercinin zihninin hesapsal yetenekleri seyrüseferin hesapsal problemlerinin yalnızca kıyısına erişebilir.
The device is actually more powerful if the user does not have to know how or why it works, because it is thereby available to a much larger community of users. The computational abilities of the mind of the navigator penetrate only the shallows of the computational problems of navigation.

Gün be gün seyrüsefer uygulamasında, daha derin problemler bazı sunum oyunları ile daha sığ olanlara dönüştürülür ya da hiç dikkate alınmazlar.
In the day-to-day practice of navigation, the deeper problems are either transformed by some representational artifice into shallow ones or not addressed at all.

“Bugün bile, zaman takibi ve konum bulmada nihai kaynak tabii ki gök cisimleridir.  Denizci gökyüzüne bakmak zorundadır.”
“Even today, of course, since the ultimate sources of time –keeping and position -finding are the heavenly bodies.! the sailor must look up at the sky.”

Fakat böylece ve şimdiye kadar profesyonel astronomlar, matematikçiler, almanak yapımcıları, enstrüman yapımcıları ve benzerleri, gerçek saat, zaman işareti, harita, takvim, veya ona bilmek istediği her neyse anlatacak ne varsa, sıradan insanı ondan ayırdılar.
 But so long and so far has the chain of experts professional astronomers , mathematicians , almanac -makers, instrument -makers and so forth - separated the ordinary man from the first -hand observation that he has ceased to think beyond the actual clock , time -signal , map calendar , or whatever it may be that " tells " him what he wishes to know .”

(Taylor 1971) Frake (1985: 268) gelgitlerin modern bilgisine ilişkin şu benzer noktayı belirtir:  “[Modern teori] modern seyrüsefercinin erişebileceğinin çok ötesindedir.  Denizciler bugün gelgit teorisini hiç bir seviyede bilmek ihtiyacını duymamaktadırlar.  Yalnızca her sefer için gelgit tablolarına başvurmaktalar.”
 (Taylor 1971) Frake (1985: 268) makes a similar point about modern knowledge of the tides :
“[ Modern tidal theory] is far beyond the reach of the modern navigator.  Sailors today have no need to understand tidal theory at any level . They merely consult their tide tables anew for each voyage.”


Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Knowing Why Things Work


Knowing Why Things Work
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

The Mercator -projection chart is a specialized analog computer , and the properties of the chart that make its use possible are profoundly mathematical in nature . But those parts of the computation were performed by cartographers and need not be a direct concern of the chart 's users.

The cartographer has already done part of the computation for every navigator who uses his chart . The computation has been distributed over time as well as across social space.  The navigator doesn't have to know how the chart was made and doesn't need to know about the properties of the Mercator projection that give special computational meaning to straight lines. 

The device is actually more powerful if the user does not have to know how or why it works, because it is thereby available to a much larger community of users. The computational abilities of the mind of the navigator penetrate only the shallows of the computational problems of navigation.

In the day-to-day practice of navigation, the deeper problems are either transformed by some representational artifice into shallow ones or not addressed at all.

“Even today, of course, since the ultimate sources of time –keeping and position -finding are the heavenly bodies.! the sailor must look up at the sky.”

 But so long and so far has the chain of experts professional astronomers , mathematicians , almanac -makers, instrument -makers and so forth - separated the ordinary man from the first -hand observation that he has ceased to think beyond the actual clock , time -signal , map calendar , or whatever it may be that " tells " him what he wishes to know .”

 (Taylor 1971) Frake (1985: 268) makes a similar point about modern knowledge of the tides :
“[ Modern tidal theory] is far beyond the reach of the modern navigator.  Sailors today have no need to understand tidal theory at any level . They merely consult their tide tables anew for each voyage.”

Sunday, February 16, 2020

İş Dönüştüren Araçlara karşı Yapay Zeka Cihazları


İş Dönüştüren Araçlara karşı Yapay Zeka Cihazları
Task transforming tools vs. Next generation intelligent artificial agents
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Böylece,  bu araçlar hesaplamayı fiziksel nesnelerin basit işlenmesi ve kavramsal değerlendirmelerin algısal çıkarımları olarak gerçekler.  Fakat belki de bu arınma gelecek nesil araçlarda eksik kalacak.
These tools thus implement computation as simple manipulation  of physical objects and implement conceptual judgements as perceptual inferences . But perhaps this refinement will be lacking from the next generation of tools .

Basit “aptal” fiziksel cihazlarla etkileşimlerimizin hesaplamasal gücünü anlamakta hata yaparak kendimizi  bir çok fırsatları israf edeceğimiz duruma sokuyoruz, sözde akıllı bilgisayarlar ile.  Psikoloji ve yapay zekanın sinerjisi bizi daha çok akıllı yapay ajanlar yapmaya götürebilir, daha kuvvetli iş-dönüştürücü temsiller yerine.
By failing to understand the source of the computational power in our interactions with simple "unintelligent" physical devices, we position ourselves well to squander opportunities with so-called intelligent computers . The synergy of psychology and artificial intelligence may lead us to attempt to create more and more intelligent artificial agents rather than more powerful task-transforming representations .

“Bizler hepimiz muhakemesel bütünleyicileriz – içsel ve dışsal yapılardan oluşan işlevsel sistemlerin fırsatçı birleştiricileri.”  Düşünme için harici araçlardan tasarımlanmış bir tür  tanımlamak içsel yapay ürünlerin rollerini görmeyi güçleştirir ve “Mikronezya seyrüsefer sisteminin yıldızların görüntülerini  bir çeşit, yerlerine bağlı olarak görmesindeki gücü algılamayı güçleştirir.”
“We are all cognitive bricoleurs - opportunistic assemblers of functional systems composed of internal and external structures . “  Defining a class of designed external tools for thinking makes it difficult to see the role of internal artifacts and  “difficult to see the power of the sort of situated seeing that is present in the Micronesian navigator's images of the stars.”

Yıldızlar yapay ürün değildir.  İnsan yapımı bir olgudan çok doğaldırlar, yine de doğru iç yapay ürünlerle etkileşim içinde( “görme” stratejileri), Mikronezya seyrüsefer sisteminin en önemli yapılı temsili medya ortamı haline gelir.
The stars are not artifacts . They are a natural rather than a human -made phenomenon , yet they do have a structure which , in interaction with the right kinds of internal artifacts (strategies for "seeing"), becomes one of the most important structured representational media of the Micronesian navigation system.

Yıldızların az ya da çok göz kırpmaları Micronezya seyrüsefer sisteminin önemli bir bileşenidir.  Yıldızların tamamen eşit dağıldığı bir gökyüzünde yıldızlarla seyrüsefer imkansız olurdu:
Farklılık bilgi içerir, ve bilgi verici hiç bir farklılık olmazdı bu durumda.
The more or less random sprinkling of stars in the heavens is an important component of the Micronesian system. In a sky with an absolutely uniform distribution of stars, navigation by the stars would be impossible
: information is difference , and there would be no differences to be seen as informative .

Eğer yalnız başına tek tek zihinlere, kültürel yapay ürünleri(sistemlerini)  işleyen bireylerden oluşan sistemlerin özelliklerini isnat edersek, tek tek zihinlere sahip olmayabilecekleri bir süreci layık görmüş oluruz, ve yapay ürünleri işlemek için gerçekten sahip olmaları gereken süreçleri soruşturamamış oluruz.  Bu tür ilişkilendirme ciddi fakat sık sık görülen bir hatadır.
If we ascribe to individual minds in isolation the properties of systems that are actually composed of individuals manipulating systems of cultural artifacts , then we have attributed to individual minds a process that they do not necessarily have, and we have failed to ask about the processes they actually must have in order to manipulate the artifacts . This sort of attribution is a serious but frequently committed error .

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Task transforming tools vs. Next generation intelligent artificial agents


Task transforming tools vs. Next generation intelligent artificial agents
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

These tools thus implement computation as simple manipulation  of physical objects and implement conceptual judgements as perceptual inferences . But perhaps this refinement will be lacking from the next generation of tools .

 By failing to understand the source of the computational power in our interactions with simple "unintelligent" physical devices, we position ourselves well to squander opportunities with so-called intelligent computers . The synergy of psychology and artificial intelligence may lead us to attempt to create more and more intelligent artificial agents rather than more powerful task-transforming representations .

“We are all cognitive bricoleurs - opportunistic assemblers of functional systems composed of internal and external structures . “  Defining a class of designed external tools for thinking makes it difficult to see the role of internal artifacts and  “difficult to see the power of the sort of situated seeing that is present in the Micronesian navigator's images of the stars.”

 The stars are not artifacts . They are a natural rather than a human -made phenomenon , yet they do have a structure which , in interaction with the right kinds of internal artifacts (strategies for "seeing"), becomes one of the most important structured representational media of the Micronesian navigation system.

The more or less random sprinkling of stars in the heavens is an important component of the Micronesian system. In a sky with an absolutely uniform distribution of stars, navigation by the stars would be impossible : information is difference , and there would be no differences to be seen as informative .

If we ascribe to individual minds in isolation the properties of systems that are actually composed of individuals manipulating systems of cultural artifacts , then we have attributed to individual minds a process that they do not necessarily have, and we have failed to ask about the processes they actually must have in order to manipulate the artifacts . This sort of attribution is a serious but
frequently committed error .

Wednesday, February 05, 2020

Zihinsel Faaliyeti Muhakeme ile İlişkilendirme


Zihinsel Faaliyeti Muhakeme ile İlişkilendirme
Relating Mental Activity to Cognition
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Gemi seyrüseferi bir çok sayıyla uğraşmayı gerektirir.  Geminin nerede olduğunu bulmak ve özellikle nerede olacağını belirlemek için sayılar işlenir.  Seyrüsefercilerin aritmetikte iyi olmaları gerektiğini  varsaymak kolay bir tercihtir.  Seyrüsefer sanatına yakından bakınca, yine de, seyrüsefercilerin matematikle çok az uğraştıklarını fark ettim.  Bu nasıl olabilirdi?
Ship navigation involves lots of numbers . Numbers have to be processed in order to find out where the ship is and especially to determine where it will be. It is easy to assume that navigators must be good at arithmetic . When I looked closely at the practice of navigation , however , I found the navigators engaged in very few arithmetic tasks. How can that be?

Seyrüdefer sistemi tarafından yapılan hesaplamaların seyrüsefer ekibinin elemanlarının karşılaştığı muhakemesel işlere eş değer olmadığı, şimdi gayet açık olmalıdır.  Seyrüsefer ekibi tarafından icra edilen hesaplamaları, ekibin tek tek elemanlarının muhakemesel yetenekleri veya faaliyetlerine başvurmadan tanımlamak mümkündür.
 It must be evident by now that the computations performed by the navigation system are not equivalent to the cognitive tasks facing the individual members of the navigation team. It is possible to describe the computations performed by the navigation team without recourse to the cognitive abilities or activities of the individual members of the team.

Seyrüsefer sistemi bir geminin konumunu belirlemek için tek-boyutlu sınırları birleştirir.  Seyrüsefer ekibinin elemanları ölçümleri okur ve konuşulmuş temsili verileri yazılı hale çevirir.  Seyrüsefer sistemi, ekip elemanları 4-haneli rakkamları iki-haneli gibi hayal ederken, hız ve zamandan uzaklığı hesaplar.
The navigation system combines one-dimensional constraints to fix a ship's position . The members of the navigation team read scales and translate spoken representations into written ones. The navigation system computes distance from rate and time , while the members of the team imagine four –digit numbers as two -digit numbers .

Seyrüsefer sistemi tarafından icra edilen hesaplamalar seyrüsefer ekibinin elemalarının muhakemesel faaliyetlerinin yan etkisidir.  Zanaatın aletleri hem seyrüsefercilerin karşılaştıkları işleri tanımlarlar hem de, çalışırken hesaplamaları gerçekleştirirler.
The computations that are performed by the navigation system are a side effect of the cognitive activity of the members of the navigation team. The tools of the trade both define the tasks that are faced by the navigators and, in their operation , actually carry out the computations .

Görmüş olduğumuz gibi, aynı hesaplama birden çok sayıda yoldan yapılabilir, her gerçekleme o işi icra edenden farklı zihinsel taleplerde bulunur.
As we have seen, the very same computation can be implemented many ways, each implementation placing vastly different cognitive demands on the task performer .

Yukarıda açıklandığı gibi bu araçların muhakemesel faaliyetlerin kuvvetlendiricisi olduğu safça anlayış yanlıştır.  Yazılmış bir işlem süreci bir bellek kuvvetlendiricisi midir?  Eğer işi icra eden işlem sürecini hiç bilmediyse.  Öyle ise, ve her zaman, işi icra eden işlevsel sistem,  birbirleri ile koordine edilmiş ve kurgulanmış temsili veriler ağıdır.
I argued above that the naive notion of these tools as amplifiers of cognitive activity was mistaken . Is a written procedure an amplifier of memory ? Not if the task performer never knew the procedure.  Then , and always , the functional system that performs the task is a constellation of structured representational media that are brought into coordination with one another .

Bu aletler zor işleri, desen eşleştirme, basit fiziksel sistemlerin el ile işletilmesi, veya basit fiziksel sistemlerin zihinsel simulasyonu ile yapılabilen işlere dönüştürmemize imkan tanır.  Bu aletler tam da, onları işletmek için gerekli zihinsel süreçler onların kullanımı ile başarılan hesaplama süreçlerinden farklı olduğu için kullanışlıdır.  Problemin hesaplama unsurları aletlerin fiziksel yapısı içine inşa edilmiştir.
These tools permit us to transform difficult tasks into ones that can be done by pattern matching , by the manipulation of simple physical systems, or by mental simulations of manipulations of simple physical systems. These tools are useful precisely because the cognitive processes required to manipulate them are not the computational processes accomplished by their manipulation . The computational constituents of the problem have been built into the physical structure of the tools .




Friday, January 31, 2020

Relating Mental Activity to Cognition


Relating Mental Activity to Cognition
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Ship navigation involves lots of numbers . Numbers have to be processed in order to find out where the ship is and especially to determine where it will be. It is easy to assume that navigators must be good at arithmetic . When I looked closely at the practice of navigation , however , I found the navigators engaged in very few arithmetic tasks. How can that be?

 It must be evident by now that the computations performed by the navigation system are not equivalent to the cognitive tasks facing the individual members of the navigation team. It is possible to describe the computations performed by the navigation team without recourse to the cognitive abilities or activities of the individual members of the team.

The navigation system combines one-dimensional constraints to fix a ship's position . The members of the navigation team read scales and translate spoken representations into written ones. The navigation system computes distance from rate and time , while the members of the team imagine four –digit numbers as two -digit numbers .

The computations that are performed by the navigation system are a side effect of the  cognitive activity of the members of the navigation team. The tools of the trade both define the tasks that are faced by the navigators and, in their operation , actually carry out the computations .

As we have seen, the very same computation can be implemented many ways, each implementation placing vastly different cognitive demands on the task performer .

I argued above that the naive notion of these tools as amplifiers of cognitive activity was mistaken . Is a written procedure an amplifier of memory ? Not if the task performer never knew the procedure .
Then , and always , the functional system that performs the task is a constellation of structured representational media that are brought into coordination with one another .

These tools permit us to transform difficult tasks into ones that can be done by pattern matching , by the manipulation of simple physical systems, or by mental simulations of manipulations of simple physical systems. These tools are useful precisely because the cognitive processes required to manipulate them are not the computational processes accomplished by their manipulation . The computational constituents of the problem have been built into the physical structure of the tools .




Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Muhakeme Sisteminin İçine Doğru


Muhakeme Sisteminin İçine Doğru
Stepping Inside the Cognitive System
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Navigasyonun temel hesaplamaları hesabi, temsili / algoritmik, ve uygulamasal seviyelerde gözlenebilen temsil nesneleri  cinsinden tümüyle belirlenebilir.
The basic computations of navigation could be characterized at the computational , representational / algorithmic , and implementational levels entirely in terms of observable representations .

Muhakemesel sisteme bu açıdan bakarken, aktörler arasındaki iletişim muhakeme sistemine ait içsel işlem süreçleri olarak görülür.
On this view of cognitive systems, communication among the actors is seen as a process internal to the cognitive system.

Diagramlar ve haritalar gibi, işlemsel ortam unsurları, sistemin içinde yer alan temsil nesneleri olarak görülür, ve onlar üzerinde yürütülen işlemler az çok sistem dahilinde işlem süreçleri olarak görülür.
Computational media , such as diagrams and charts , are seen as representations internal to the system, and the computations carried out upon them are more processes internal to the system.

Muhakemesel faaliyet sosyal ağ üzerinde dağıtılmış olduğundan bu içsel işlem süreçlerinin bir çoğu ve dahili iletişimler doğrudan gözlenebilir.
Because the cognitive activity is distributed across a social network , many of these internal processes and internal communications are directly observable.

Sosyal dağıtılmış sistemlerle, muhakemesel sistemin içine doğru bir adım atabiliriz, ve altta yer alan bazı işlem süreçleri (insanların kafaları içindeki) belirsiz kalsa da, iç organizasyon ve sistemin işleyişinin büyük bir kısmı doğrudan gözlenebilir.
With systems of socially distributed cognition we can step inside the cognitive system, and while some underlying processes (inside people's heads) remain obscured , a great deal of the internal organization and operation of the system is directly observable.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Stepping Inside the Cognitive System


Stepping Inside the Cognitive System
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

The basic computations of navigation could be characterized at the computational , representational / algorithmic , and implementational levels entirely in terms of observable representations .

On this view of cognitive systems, communication among the actors is seen as a process internal to the cognitive system.

 Computational media , such as diagrams and charts , are seen as representations internal to the system, and the computations carried out upon them are more processes internal to the system.

Because the cognitive activity is distributed across a social network , many of these internal processes and internal communications are directly observable.

With systems of socially distributed cognition we can step inside the cognitive system, and while some underlying processes (inside people's heads) remain obscured , a great deal of the internal organization and operation of the system is directly observable.


Saturday, January 18, 2020

Dağıtılmış Muhakeme nedir?


Dağıtılmış Muhakeme nedir?
What is distributed cognition?

Dağıtılmış Muhakeme bireysel muhakeme imkanlarını arttırmak için ya da bir bireysel elemanın tek başına başaramadığı  muhakeme imkanlarının insanlar arasında paylaşıldığı bir süreçtir.
Distributed cognition refers to a process in which cognitive resources are shared socially in order to
extend individual cognitive resources or to accomplish  something that an individual agent could not achieve alone.

İnsanın muhakemesel başarıları, bir elemanın muhakemesel süreçleri ile dünyadaki nesnelerin ve sınırlamaların karşılıklı olarak birbirlerini etkilediği bir sürece dayanır.
Human cognitive achievements are based on a process in which an agent's cognitive processes and the objects and constraints of the world reciprocally affect each other.

Muhakemesel süreçler insanlar ve makinalar arasında  veya muhakemesel elmanlar arasında(fiziksel olarak dağıtılmış muhakeme)  dağıtılabilir(sosyal olarak dağıtılmış muhakeme).
Cognitive processes can be distributed between humans and machines (physically distributed cognition, Norman, 1993; Perkins, 1993) or between cognitive agents (socially distributed cognition).


Wednesday, January 15, 2020

What is distributed cognition


What is distributed cognition?

Distributed cognition refers to a process in which cognitive resources are shared socially in order to
extend individual cognitive resources or to accomplish  something that an individual agent could not achieve alone.

Human cognitive achievements are based on a process in which an agent's cognitive processes and the objects and constraints of the world reciprocally affect each other.

Cognitive processes can be distributed between humans and machines (physically distributed cognition, Norman, 1993; Perkins, 1993) or between cognitive agents (socially distributed cognition).

Thursday, January 09, 2020

Dağıtılmış Muhakeme ve Karıncalar nasıl Yön Bulur


Dağıtılmış Muhakeme ve Karıncalar nasıl Yön Bulur 
Distributed Cognition and how Ants Navigate
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Simon(1981) muhakeme için ortamın önemini vurgulayan bir ibret öyküsü sundu.  Kumsaldaki bir karıncanın karışık hareketlerini izlerken, izlenen patikayı oluştururmak için, karıncaya  karmaşık bir program atfettiğimizi  ileri sürdü.   Aslında, Simon’a göre,  izlenen yol karıncadan çok kumsal hakkında bize bilgi verir.
Simon (1981) offered a parable as a way of emphasizing the importance of the environment for cognition .
He argued that , as we watch the complicated movements of an ant on a beach, we may be tempted to attribute to the ant some complicated program for constructing the path taken. In fact, Simon says, that trajectory tells us more about the beach than about the ant.

İbret öyküsünü bir karınca toplumu ile bir kumsala ve hikayesine genişletmek isterim.  Psikologların yaptıkları gibi, bir tek karıncayı gözlemektense, birer antrapolog olalım ve bir karınca toplumunu haftalar ve aylar boyunca izleyelim.   Karıncalar için yasak bölge olan bir fırtınadan sonra sahile geldiğimizi kabul edelim.  Nesiller boyunca karıncalar kumsalı tararlar.  Arkalarında kısa ömürlü kimyasal işaretler bırakırlar, ve nereye giderlerse orada kum tanelerini istekleri dışında kımıldatırlar.  Aylar sonra, olası yiyecek  kaynaklarına giden patikalar gelişir, ilk önce kardeş karıncaların kısa ömürlü kimyasal artıklarını daha sonra yüklü karınca trafiği tarafından üretilen  uzun ömürlü yolları takip eden karıncalar tarafından...  
I would like to extend the parable to a beach with a community of ants and a history . Rather than watch a single ant for a few minutes , as psychologists are wont to do, let us be anthropologists and move in and watch a community of ants over weeks and months . Let us assume that we arrive just after a storm , when the beach is a tabula rasa for the ants. Generations of ants comb the beach. They leave behind them short -lived chemical trails , and where they go they inadvertently move grains of sand as they pass. Over months , paths to likely food sources develop as they are visited again and again by ants following first the short -lived chemical trails of their fellows and later the longer -lived roads produced by a history of heavy ant traffic .

After months of watching , we decide to follow a particular ant on an outing . We may be impressed by how cleverly it visits every high -likelihood food location . This ant seems to work so much more efficiently than did its ancestors of weeks ago. Is this a smart ant? Is it perhaps smarter than its ancestors? No, it is just the same dumb sort of ant, reacting to its environment in the same ways its ancestors did .

Fakat ortam aynı değildir.  Kültürel bir çevredir.  Karınca nesilleri kumsalda işaretlerini bırakmıştır, ve aptal bir karınca atalarının  hareketlerinden kalan artıklarla etkileşerek akıllıymış gibi görünür.
But the environment is not the same.   It is a cultural environment . Generations of ants have left their marks on the beach, and now a dumb ant has been made to appear smart through its simple interaction with the residua of the history of its ancestor's actions .

Simon açıkça haklıydı: karıncayı gözlerken, karıncanın  iç dünyası hakkından çok kumsal hakkında bilgi sahibi oluruz.  Ve ‘özgürce’ düşünen insanları gözleyerek, onların iç dünyasından çok onların düşünmek için kullandığı çevreleri hakkında bilgi öğreniyor olabiliriz.
Simon was obviously right : in watching the ant, we learn more about the beach than about what is inside the ant.   And in watching people thinking in the wild , we may be learning more about their
environment for thinking than about what is inside them . 

Bunun farkında oldukğumuz zaman, muhakeme hakkında burada bilgi toplayamayız diye, eşyaları toplayıp sahili terk etmemeliyiz.  İnsan düşünmesinin çevreleri ‘doğal’ çevreler değildir.  İçten içe yapaydır.
Having realized this , we should not pack up and leave the beach, concluding that we cannot learn about cognition here. The environments of human thinking are not " natural " environments . They are artificial through and through .

İnsanlar muhakeme güçlerini onları kullandıkları ortamları yaratak oluştururlar.  Şu ana kadar, çok azımız bu ortamları muhakemesel faaliyetlerin düzenleyicisi olarak, ciddi şekilde incelemek için zaman ayırmıştır, bu yüzden düşüncenin inşasında onların rolünü çok az tartabiliyoruz.
Humans create their cognitive powers by creating the environments in which they exercise those powers . At present, so few of us have taken the time to study these environments seriously as organizers of cognitive activity that we have little sense of their role in the construction of thought.

Saturday, January 04, 2020

Distributed Cognition and how Ants Navigate


Distributed Cognition and how Ants Navigate
Edwin Hutchins, Cognition_in_the_Wild

Simon (1981) offered a parable as a way of emphasizing the importance of the environment for cognition . He argued that , as we watch the complicated movements of an ant on a beach, we may be tempted to attribute to the ant some complicated program for constructing the path taken. In fact, Simon says, that trajectory tells us more about the beach than about the ant.

 I would like to extend the parable to a beach with a community of ants and a history . Rather than watch a single ant for a few minutes , as psychologists are wont to do, let us be anthropologists and move in and watch a community of ants over weeks and months . Let us assume that we arrive just after a storm , when the beach is a tabula rasa for the ants. Generations of ants comb the beach. They leave behind them short -lived chemical trails , and where they go they inadvertently move grains of sand as they pass. Over months , paths to likely food sources develop as they are visited again and again by ants following first the short -lived chemical trails of their fellows and later the longer -lived roads produced by a history of heavy ant traffic .

After months of watching , we decide to follow a particular ant on an outing . We may be impressed by how cleverly it visits every high -likelihood food location . This ant seems to work so much more efficiently than did its ancestors of weeks ago. Is this a smart ant? Is it perhaps smarter than its ancestors? No, it is just the same dumb sort of ant, reacting to its environment in the same ways its ancestors did .

 But the environment is not the same.   It is a cultural environment . Generations of ants have left their marks on the beach, and now a dumb ant has been made to appear smart through its simple interaction with the residua of the history of its ancestor's actions .

Simon was obviou sly right : in watching the ant, we learn more about the beach than about what is inside the ant. And in watching people thinking in the wild , we may be learning more about their
environment for thinking than about what is inside them .  

Having realized this , we should not pack up and leave the beach, concluding that we cannot learn about cognition here. The environments of human thinking are not " natural " environments . They are artificial through and through .

Humans create their cognitive powers by creating the environments in which they exercise those powers . At present, so few of us have taken the time to study these environments seriously as organizers of cognitive activity that we have little sense of their role in the construction of thought.